Chacoan Archaeology at the 21st Century (ASW 32-2/3)

Chacoan Archaeology at the 21st Century (32-2/3)

Issue Editors: Jeffery J. Clark and Barbara J. Mills

64 pages

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In this issue

Chacoan Archaeology at the 21st Century: New Questions and Ongoing Revelations, Jeffery J. Clark and Barbara J. Mills
The Chaco World at a Glance, Paul F. Reed

IN THE CANYON

The Earliest Pueblo Settlements, Thomas C. Windes
New Views from Past Excavations at Pueblo Bonito, Patricia L. Crown and W. H. Wills
Chaco Farming in 3-D, W. H. Wills, Wetherbee B. Dorshow, and Jennie Sturm
Water Management, Vernon L. Scarborough, R. Gwinn Vivian, Samantha G. Fladd, and Adam S. Watson

BEYOND THE CANYON

Enigma on the Animas, Michelle I. Turner and Ruth M. Van Dyke
Delving into Earl Morris’s Aztec Files, Erin Baxter
The Northern Chaco Outliers Project, Susan C. Ryan
Early Chacoan Communities in the San Juan Basin, Kellam Throgmorton
Chacoan Communities at the Southern Edge of the Chaco World, Andrew Duff and Kristin Safi
Ancient Population Dynamics in the Chuska Valley, Monica L. Murrell

DATA FROM WITHIN AND BEYOND

The Chaco Social Networks Database, Barbara J. Mills, Jeffery J. Clark, and Matthew A. Peeples
How Connected Was the Chaco World? Barbara J. Mills, Matthew A. Peeples, Jeffery J. Clark, Leslie D. Aragon, Benjamin A. Bellorado, Evan Giomi, and Thomas C. Windes
The Chaco Research Archive and the Salmon Pueblo Archaeological Research Collection, Carrie C. Heitman, Worthy Martin, Stephen Plog, and Paul F. Reed
Climate at the Center Place, Kyle Bocinsky
Visibility and Chacoan Architecture, Katherine Dungan, Devin White, and Sylviane Déderix
Origins of Great House Construction Timbers at Chaco Canyon, Christopher H. Guiterman and Christopher H. Baisan
Recent Research on Chaco-Era Tower Kivas, John Kantner
Chacoan Soundscapes, Ruth M. Van Dyke and Timothy de Smet
Chaco Facial Designs, Jill E. Neitzel
Chacoan Ornaments, Hannah V. Mattson
Preliminary Report on the Provenance of Turquoise Recovered from Pueblo Bonito, Alyson Thibodeau, David Killick, and Joaquin Ruiz
Ritual Birds, Katelyn J. Bishop, Samantha G. Fladd, and Adam S. Watson
A Woven Web of Regional Influence, Edward A. Jolie, Laurie D. Webster, and Benjamin A. Bellorado
Dogoszhi Style Pottery and Chacoan Elites, Evan Giomi and Leslie D. Aragon
Stone Materials in the Chaco World, Catherine Cameron and Jeffery J. Clark

ROOM FOR DEBATE

What Was Chaco, Really? Stephen H. Lekson, Barbara J. Mills, Jeffery J. Clark, and Carrie C. Heitman

PERSPECTIVES AND PRESERVATION

Hopi and Zuni Histories of the Chaco World, Maren P. Hopkins, Octavius Seowtewa, Stewart B. Koyiyumptewa, and T. J. Ferguson
Knowing Chaco, Theresa Pasqual

PRESERVATION SPOTLIGHT

Combating Serious Threats to the Greater Chaco Landscape, Paul F. Reed

Back Sight, William H. Doelle

Archaeology Southwest Magazine Vol. 32, Nos. 3 & 4

Issue Editors: Jeffery J. Clark and Barbara J. Mills

Even after more than 100 years of scrutiny and debate, Chaco still captivates archaeologists and the public like few other places in the Southwest. The Chaco World is still being studied at all scales and perspectives, and with new scientific and analytical methods. And in today’s era of expanding oil and gas exploration, the greater Chaco landscape is being defended by coalitions of descendant tribal groups, archaeologists, legislators, and other conservation-minded stakeholders.

INTRODUCTION

Chacoan Archaeology at the 21st Century: New Questions and Ongoing Revelations, Jeffery J. Clark and Barbara J. Mills

Chaco Culture UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Scholars have shared a variety of viewpoints on Chaco at several Archaeology Southwest events (links open at Archaeology Southwest’s YouTube channel):

Watch Paul Reed’s 2010 Archaeology Café presentation, The Complexity and Diversity of Chaco Canyon

Watch Ruth Van Dyke’s 2011 Archaeology Café presentation, The Chaco Experience

Watch Steve Lekson’s 2013 Archaeology Café presentation, What Was Chaco, Really?

Watch Gwinn Vivian’s Tea & Archaeology presentation, Living in Chaco, Interpreting Chaco

The Chaco World at a Glance, Paul F. Reed

Chaco Culture fact sheet (PDF download)

Shabik’eschee at the Chaco Research Archive

IN THE CANYON

Chaco Canyon
Pueblo Bonito. Image © Paul Vanderveen

Website of Chaco Culture National Historical Park

The Earliest Pueblo Settlements, Thomas C. Windes

Kana’a Gray Neckbanded entry at the Southwest Ceramic Typology

New Views from Past Excavations at Pueblo Bonito, Patricia L. Crown and W. H. Wills

Pueblo Bonito at the Chaco Research Archive

Science and Serendipity: The Recovery of Cacao in Chaco Canyon, Tea & Archaeology presentation by Patricia Crown (opens at Archaeology Southwest’s YouTube channel)

Archaeology Southwest Magazine Vol. 26, No. 1, articles begin on page 22, “This Old Trench: The Chaco Stratigraphy Project” and “Hidden in Plain Sight: Finding Cacao in Chacoan Cylinder Jars.” (Opens as a PDF)

Crown, Patricia L., and W. H. Wills
2018 The Complex History of Pueblo Bonito and Its Interpretation. Antiquity  92(364):890–904.

Crown, Patricia L.
2018  Drinking Performance and Politics in Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon. American Antiquity 83(3):387–406.

Crown, Patricia (editor)
2016  The Pueblo Bonito Mounds of Chaco Canyon: Material Culture and Fauna. UNM Press, Albuquerque.

Crown, Patricia L., Kerriann Marden, and Hannah V. Mattson
2017  Foot Notes: The Social Implications of Polydactyly and Foot-Related Imagery at Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon. American Antiquity 81(3):426–448.

Crown, Patricia, Jiyan Gu, W. Jeffrey Hurst, Timothy J. Ward, Ardith D. Bravenec, Syed Ali, Laura Kebert, Marlaina Berch, Erin Redman, Patrick D. Lyons, Jamie Merewether, David A. Phillips, Lori S. Reed, and Kyle Woodson
2015  Ritual Drinks in the Prehispanic US Southwest and Northwest Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(37):11436–11442.

Ainsworth, Caitlin S., Patricia L. Crown, Emily Lena Jones, and Stephanie E. Franklin
2018  Ritual Deposition of Avifauna in the Northern Burial Cluster at Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon. Kiva 84(1):110–135.

Drake, B. Lee
2018  Source & Sourceability: Towards a probabilistic framework fordendroprovenance based on hypothesis testing and Bayesian inference. Dendrochronologia 47:38–47.

Hamilton, Marian I., B. Lee Drake, W. H. Wills, Emily Lena Jones, Cyler Conrad, and Patricia L. Crown
2017  Stable Oxygen Isotope Sourcing of Archaeological Fauna From Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. American Antiquity 83(1):163–175.

Sturm, Jennie O., and Patricia L. Crown
2015  Micro-scale mapping using Ground Penetrating Radar: an Example from Room 28, Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Advances in Archaeological Practice 3:124–135(12).

Chaco Farming in 3-D, W. H. Wills, Wetherbee B. Dorshow, and Jennie Sturm

Chetro Ketl at the Chaco Research Archive

Wills, W. H.
2017  Water Management and the Political Economy of Chaco Canyon During the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 850–1200). Kiva 83(4):369–413.

Wills, W. H., David W. Love, Susan J. Smith, Karen R. Adams, Manuel R. Palacios-Fest, Wetherbee B. Dorshow, Beau Murphy, Jennie O. Sturm, Hannah Mattson and Patricia L. Crown
2016   Water Management at Pueblo Bonito: Evidence from the National Geographic Society Trenches. American Antiquity 81(3):449–470.

Wills, W. H., and Wetherbee B. Dorshow
2012  Agriculture and Community in Chaco Canyon: Revisiting Pueblo Alto. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 31(2):138–155.

Dorshow, Wetherbee Bryan
2012  Modeling Agricultural Potential in Chaco Canyon during the Bonito phase: A Predictive Geospatial Approach.  Journal of Archaeological Science 39:2098–2115.

Sturm, Jennie O.
2016  Using Ground-Penetrating Radar to Re-Evaluate the Chetro Ketl Field Area in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 7:238–246.

Water Management, Vernon L. Scarborough, R. Gwinn Vivian, Samantha G. Fladd, and Adam S. Watson

Pueblo del Arroyo and Penasco Blanco at the Chaco Research Archive

Scarborough, Vernon L., Samantha G. Fladd, Nicholas P. Dunning, Stephen Plog, Lewis A. Owen, Christopher Carr, Kenneth B. Tankersley, Jon-Paul McCool, Adam S. Watson, Elizabeth A. Haussner, Katelyn J. Bishop, Brooke Crowley, David L. Lentz, and R. Gwinn Vivian
2018  Water Uncertainty, Ritual Predictability and Agricultural Canals at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Antiquity (Special Section on Chaco Canyon) 92 (364):870–889.

McCool, Jon-Paul P., Fladd, Samantha G. Fladd, Vernon L. Scarborough, Stephen Plog, Nicholas P. Dunning, Lewis A. Owen, Adam S. Watson, Katelyn J. Bishop, Brooke E. Crowley, Elizabeth A. Haussner, Kenneth B. Tankersley, David Lentz, Christopher Carr, and Jessica L. Thress
2018  Soil Salinity in Discussions of Agricultural Feasbility for Ancient Civilizations: A Critical Review of the Data and Debate at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. PLoS ONE 13(6):e0198290. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198290

BEYOND THE CANYON

Padilla Well Sherds
White ware pottery sherds dating to the late AD 800s and 900s within the Padilla Well community, with West Mesa in the background. Image: Kellam Throgmorton

Enigma on the Animas, Michelle I. Turner and Ruth M. Van Dyke

Website of Aztec Ruins National Monument

Archaeology Southwest Magazine Vol. 28, No. 1, Chaco’s Legacy, edited by Paul F. Reed

Archaeology Southwest Magazine Vol. 24, No. 3, Social Identity in the Northern San Juan, edited by Paul F. Reed. (Opens as a PDF)

Brown, Gary M., and Cheryl I. Paddock
2011  Chacoan and Vernacular Architecture at Aztec Ruins: Putting Chaco in Its Place. Kiva 77(2):203–224.

Delving into Earl Morris’s Aztec Files, Erin Baxter

Archaeology Southwest Magazine Vol. 28, No. 1, Chaco’s Legacy, edited by Paul F. Reed

Archaeology Southwest Magazine Vol. 24, No. 3, Social Identity in the Northern San Juan, edited by Paul F. Reed. (Opens as a PDF)

Lister, Florence C., and Robert H. Lister
1968  Earl Morris & Southwestern Archaeology. The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Lister, Robert H., and Florence C. Lister
1969  The Earl H. Morris Memorial Pottery Collection. University of Colorado Studies Series in Anthropology No. 16. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.

Morris, Ann Axtell
1933  Digging in the Southwest. Cadmus Books, E. M. Hale and Co., Chicago.

University of Colorado Museum
1985  Among Ancient Ruins: The Legacy of Earl H. Morris. Introduction by Joe Ben Wheat. Johnson Books, Boulder.

The Northern Chaco Outliers Project, Susan C. Ryan

Crow Canyon Archaeological Center

The project reported in this article

Early Chacoan Communities in the San Juan Basin, Kellam Throgmorton

Kellam’s blog post for Archaeology Southwest about an earlier phase of this project

Chacoan Communities at the Southern Edge of the Chaco World, Andrew Duff and Kristin Safi

Ancient Population Dynamics in the Chuska Valley, Monica L. Murrell

Murrell, Monica L., and David T. Unruh
2016  From Great Kivas to Great Houses: Community Formation and Social Dynamics in the Southern Chuska Valley. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 42:198–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2016.05.001

Murrell, Monica L., and Bradley J. Vierra
2014 Bridging the Basin: Land Use and Social History of the Southern Chuska Valley. Vol. 1 – 4, SRI Technical Report Nos. 13-69, 14-03, 14-08, 14-20, Statistical Research, Inc., Albuquerque. NMDOT Cultural Resource Technical Series 2014-2.
http://dot.state.nm.us/content/nmdot/en/environmental_development_Publications.html

DATA FROM WITHIN AND BEYOND

Raised Voice Pierre's Site
Audibility model for a raised voice across the landscape. Elevation is exaggerated by a factor of two in this view to the southwest. Graphic: Catherine Gilman, based on orthoimagery by Google Earth

The Chaco Social Networks Database, Barbara J. Mills, Jeffery J. Clark, and Matthew A. Peeples

Initial project page

How Connected Was the Chaco World? Barbara J. Mills, Matthew A. Peeples, Jeffery J. Clark, Leslie D. Aragon, Benjamin A. Bellorado, Evan Giomi, and Thomas C. Windes

Mills, Barbara J., Matthew A. Peeples, Jeffery J. Clark, Leslie D. Aragon, Benjamin A. Bellorado, Evan Giomi, and Thomas C. Windes
2018  Evaluating Chaco migration scenarios using dynamic social network analysis. Antiquity 92(364):922–939. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2018.86

The Inspiring Life of Cynthia Irwin-Williams, a video produced by Eastern New Mexico University’s Anthropology Department and Mu Alpha Nu Anthropology Club (opens in YouTube)

The Chaco Research Archive and the Salmon Pueblo Archaeological Research Collection, Carrie C. Heitman, Worthy Martin, Stephen Plog, and Paul F. Reed

[Note to readers: you can click on these two links below and really explore the data. Please do!]

Chaco Research Archive

Salmon Pueblo Archaeological Research Collection

Climate at the Center Place, Kyle Bocinsky

3-D reconstruction of the direct-precipitation maize farming niche in the U.S. Southwest, AD 790 (.mov download)

Bocinsky, R. Kyle, Rush, Johnathan, Kintigh, Keith W., and Kohler, Timothy A.
2016  Exploration and exploitation in the macrohistory of the pre-Hispanic Pueblo Southwest. Science Advances 2:e1501532.

Schwindt, Dylan M., Bocinsky, R. Kyle, Ortman, Scott G., Glowacki, Donna M., Varien, Mark D., and Kohler, Timothy A.
2016  The social consequences of climate change in the Central Mesa Verde region. American Antiquity 81(1):74–96.

McCool, J.-P. P., Fladd, S. G., Scarborough, V. L., Plog, S., Dunning, N. P., Owen, L. A., Watson, A. S., Bishop, K. J., Crowley, B. E., Haussner, E. A., et al.
2018  Soil analysis in discussions of agricultural feasibility for ancient civilizations: A critical review and reanalysis of the data and debate from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. PLoS ONE 13(6):e0198290. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198290

Visibility and Chacoan Architecture, Katherine Dungan, Devin White, and Sylviane Déderix

Kin Klizhin at the Chaco Research Archive

Dungan, K., White, D., Déderix, S., Mills, B., & Safi, K.
2018  A total viewshed approach to local visibility in the Chaco World. Antiquity 92(364):905–921.

Origins of Great House Construction Timbers at Chaco Canyon, Christopher H. Guiterman and Christopher H. Baisan

Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

Guiterman, C. H., T. W. Swetnam, and J. S. Dean
2016  Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113:1186–1190, doi:10.1073/pnas.1514272112. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1514272112

Watson, A. S.
2016  Long-distance wood procurement and the Chaco florescence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(5), 1118–1120.

Betancourt, J. L., and C. H. Guiterman
2016  Revisiting human-environment interactions in Chaco Canyon and the American Southwest. Past Glob. Chang. Mag., 24, 64–65, doi:10.22498/pages.24.2.64. http://www.pastglobalchanges.org/products/pages-magazine/7411-human-environment-interactions-chaco.

Recent Research on Chaco-Era Tower Kivas, John Kantner

Kantner, J., & Hobgood, R.
2016  A GIS-based viewshed analysis of Chacoan tower kivas in the US Southwest: Were they for seeing or to be seen? Antiquity 90(353):1302–1317.

Van Dyke, R., Bocinsky, R., Windes, T., & Robinson, T.
2016  Great Houses, Shrines, and High Places: Intervisibility in the Chacoan World. American Antiquity 81(2):205–230.

Dungan, K., White, D., Déderix, S., Mills, B., & Safi, K.
2018  A total viewshed approach to local visibility in the Chaco World. Antiquity 92(364):905–921.

Chacoan Soundscapes, Ruth M. Van Dyke and Timothy de Smet

Daily Times interview with Paul F. Reed at Pierre’s (opens in YouTube)

Chaco Facial Designs, Jill E. Neitzel

Pepper, George H.
1906  Human Effigy Vases from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Anthropological Papers Written in Honor of Franz Boas, pp. 320–344. G. E Steckert and Co. [American Museum of Natural History], New York.

Chacoan Ornaments, Hannah V. Mattson

American Museum of Natural History, Division of Anthropology, Collections Database

Preliminary Report on the Provenance of Turquoise Recovered from Pueblo Bonito, Alyson Thibodeau, David Killick, and Joaquin Ruiz

Thibodeau, A.M., López-Luján, Leonardo, Killick, D.J., Berdan, F., Ruiz, J.
2018  Was Aztec and Mixtec turquoise mined in the American Southwest? Science Advances: aas9370. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aas9370.

Thibodeau, A.M., Killick, D.J., Ruiz, J., Chesley, J.T.
2015  Isotopic evidence for the provenance of turquoise in the southwestern United States. GSA Bulletin 27: 1617–1631. doi: 10.1130/B31135.1

Thibodeau, A.M., Chesley, J.T., Ruiz, J., Killick, D.J., Vokes, A.
2012  An Alternative Approach to the Prehispanic Turquoise Trade. In Turquoise in Mexico and North America: Science, Conservation, Culture, and Collections, King, J.C.H., C.R. Cartwright, R. Stacey, C. McEwan and M. Carocci (eds.) Archetype, London. pp. 65–74.

Ritual Birds, Katelyn J. Bishop, Samantha G. Fladd, and Adam S. Watson

Pueblo Alto, Pueblo BonitoPueblo del Arroyo, Bc 57 and Bc 58 at the Chaco Research Archive

Watson, Adam S., Stephen Plog, Brendan J. Culleton, Patricia A. Gilman, Steven A. LeBlanc, Peter M. Whiteley, Santiago Claramunt, and Douglas J. Kennett
2015  Early Procurement of Scarlet Macaws and the Emergence of Social Complexity in Chaco Canyon, NM. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 112(27):8238–8243.

Akins, Nancy J.
1987  Faunal Remains from Pueblo Alto. In Investigations at the Pueblo Alto Complex, Chaco Canyon, Volume III, Part 2, edited by Frances Joan Mathien and Thomas C. Windes, pp.445–649. Publications in Archaeology 18F, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

A Woven Web of Regional Influence, Edward A. Jolie, Laurie D. Webster, and Benjamin A. Bellorado

American Museum of Natural History, Division of Anthropology, Collections Database

Website of the Arizona State Museum

Dogoszhi Style Pottery and Chacoan Elites, Evan Giomi and Leslie D. Aragon

Website of the Arizona State Museum

Stone Materials in the Chaco World, Catherine Cameron and Jeffery J. Clark

Duff, Andrew I., Jeremy M. Moss, Thomas C. Windes, John Kantner, and Steven M. Shackley
2012  Patterning of procurement of obsidian in Chaco Canyon and in Chaco-era communities in New Mexico as revealed by X-ray fluorescence. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(9):2995–3007.

Cameron, Catherine M.
2001  Pink Chert, Projectile Points, and the Chacoan Regional System. American Antiquity 66(1):79–102.

ROOM FOR DEBATE

Great kiva at Casa Rinconada
Great kiva at Casa Rinconada. Image © Paul Vanderveen

What Was Chaco, Really? Stephen H. Lekson, Barbara J. Mills, Jeffery J. Clark, and Carrie C. Heitman

Watch Steve Lekson’s 2013 Archaeology Café presentation, What Was Chaco, Really? (opens at Archaeology Southwest’s YouTube channel)

Lekson, Stephen H.
2018  A Study of Southwestern Archaeology. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

2015  Chaco Meridian (2nd ed.). Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland.

2009  A History of the Ancient Southwest. SAR Press, Santa Fe.

PERSPECTIVES AND PRESERVATION

Zuni Advisors at Chimney Rock
Zuni advisors discuss the great kiva at Chimney Rock National Monument in southern Colorado during a research visit in 2016. Image: Maren P. Hopkins

Hopi and Zuni Histories of the Chaco World, Maren P. Hopkins, Octavius Seowtewa, Stewart B. Koyiyumptewa, and T. J. Ferguson

Website of the Hopi Tribe

Website of the Pueblo of Zuni

Knowing Chaco, Theresa Pasqual

Pueblo of Acoma

Acoma Perspectives on Greater Chaco

Pueblo Alto at the Chaco Research Archive

PRESERVATION SPOTLIGHT

Drill Pad with Pierre Ruin in the background.
Drill pad with Pierre’s site in the background. Image: Courtesy of EcoFlight.

Combating Serious Threats to the Greater Chaco Landscape, Paul F. Reed

All Pueblo Council of Governors (APCG)

APCG op-ed (10/4/2018), “We traveled 2,000 miles to save Chaco Canyon,” in High Country News

Archaeology Southwest’s statement on Senators Udall and Heinrich’s introduction of the Chaco Cultural Heritage Area Protection Act of 2018

Pueblo of Acoma Preservation Study of the Greater Chaco Landscape

The Coalition to Protect Greater Chaco

EcoFlight aerial footage (opens at YouTube)

Back Sight, William H. Doelle

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