Santa Fe Underground (ASW 29-2/3)

Issue editors: Cherie L. Scheick and Stephen S. Post

Every city has history, but in Santa Fe, history surrounds us. It is a record not of 100 years, but of several thousand years. From the terraces above town to the river floodplain below, reminders of the city’s past inhabitants are woven into the fabric of Santa Fe. As the city expands and development continues, archaeologists uncover ever more evidence of the older center beneath it. In this issue of Archaeology Southwest Magazine, we hope to introduce readers to Santa Fe and its remarkable history.

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In this issue:

Santa Fe Underground — Cherie L. Scheick

Photo Collage: Above and Below the Streets of Santa Fe

Change through Time and Historic Events in and around Santa Fe —Cherie L. Scheick, Stephen S. Post, Kate Sarther Gann, and Kathleen M. Bader

In Brief: “Their name is on your waters”— David H. Snow

Understanding and Managing the Archaeology of Santa Fe—Glenda Deyloff

In Brief: Archaeological Review in the City of Santa Fe—Lisa G. Roach

The First 6,500 Years:Archaic Santa Fe—Stephen S. Post

In Brief: Ancestral Pueblo Population and Settlement Patterns in and around Santa Fe—Cherie L. Scheick

Pueblo Archaeology of the Santa Fe River Valley—Cherie L. Scheick

Visualization: Santa Fe’s Life-Supporting Natural Resources: Resource Zones—Cherie L. Scheick, Catherine Gilman, and Robert B. Ciaccio

In Brief: What Kind of Climate Did Santa Fe’s Ancestral Pueblo Communities Experience?—Carla R. Van West

What Is Black and White and under Santa Fe?—C. Dean Wilson and Eric Blinman

Where on Earth Was the Original Spanish Colonial Plaza?—David H. Snow

In Brief: What Is beneath the Palace of the Governors?—David H. Snow

Tewa Pottery from Nineteenth-Century Archaeological Sites—C. Dean Wilson

An Era of Change: Santa Fe in the 1800s and 1900s—Matthew J. Barbour and Jessica A. Badner

In Brief: The Curious “Coin” of Santa Fe— Lonyta Viklund-Galloway

Preservation Spotlight: The Missing Dead of Historic Santa Fe: A Preservation Problem 400 Years in the Making—Alysia L. Abbott

Back Sight—William H. Doelle

Archaeology Southwest Magazine Vol. 29, Nos. 2 & 3

Issue editors: Cherie L. Scheick, Southwest Archaeological Consultants, and Stephen S. Post, Zia Archaeology

Every city has history, but in Santa Fe, history surrounds us. It is a record not of 100 years, but of several thousand years. From the terraces above town to the river floodplain below, reminders of the city’s past inhabitants are woven into the fabric of Santa Fe. As the city expands and development continues, archaeologists uncover ever more evidence of the older center beneath it. In this issue of Archaeology Southwest Magazine, we hope to introduce readers to Santa Fe and its remarkable history.

Santa Fe Underground — Cherie L. Scheick

Links of interest:

New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs

New Mexico History Museum

New Mexico Museum of Art

New Mexico Office of the State Historian

Museum of Indian Arts and Culture/Laboratory of Anthropology

For further reading:

Santa Fe: History of an Ancient City (Revised and Expanded Edition). David Grant Noble, editor. SAR Press, 2008.

Before Santa Fe: Archaeology of the City Different. Jason S. Shapiro. Museum of New Mexico Press, 2008.

Photo Collage: Above and Below the Streets of Santa Fe

Special thanks to Santa Fe resident and photographer Ellen Herr and to santafe.org for the many beautiful images in this collage and throughout the magazine.

Palace of the Governors
Palace of the Governors. Photo by Ellen Herr.

Change through Time and Historic Events in and around Santa Fe — Cherie L. Scheick, Stephen S. Post, Kate Sarther Gann, and Kathleen M. Bader

“An Alternative Reconstruction of Northern Rio Grande Prehistory,” Fred Wendorf and Erik K. Reed, El Palacio 62 (5–6) (May–June 1955):131–173.

In Brief: “Their name is on your waters,” David H. Snow

Tanoan languages

Keresan languages

Full text of Lydia Huntley Sigourney’s (1791–1865) poem “Indian Names” at poetryfoundation.org

Website of the New Mexico Acequia Association

Understanding and Managing the Archaeology of Santa Fe — Glenda Deyloff

What is GIS? at esri.com

“A Window on Santa Fe’s History,” Curtis F. Schaafsma, El Palacio 88(3) (Fall 1988):29–39.

Santa Fe, 1882
Map of Santa Fe in 1882, the Railroad Era. Courtesy of Wikimedia and the State of New Mexico archives.

In Brief: Archaeological Review in the City of Santa Fe — Lisa G. Roach

Webpage of the Historic Preservation Division at santafenm.gov

The First 6,500 Years: Archaic Santa Fe — Stephen S. Post

In Brief: Ancestral Pueblo Population and Settlement Patterns in and around Santa Fe — Cherie L. Scheick

Pueblo Archaeology of the Santa Fe River Valley — Cherie L. Scheick

Visualization: Santa Fe’s Life-Supporting Natural Resources: Resource Zones — Cherie L. Scheick, Catherine Gilman, and Robert B. Ciaccio

In Brief: What Kind of Climate Did Santa Fe’s Ancestral Pueblo Communities Experience? — Carla R. Van West

What Is Black and White and under Santa Fe? C. Dean Wilson and Eric Blinman

Website of the New Mexico Office of Archaeological Studies

Kwahe’e Black-on-white

Santa Fe Black-on-white

Pindi Black-on-white

Rio Grande Glaze Ware

Biscuit Ware

Where on Earth Was the Original Spanish Colonial Plaza? — David H. Snow

About this article, Dr. Snow warns, “Caveat lector, there’s heresy afoot!”

Website of the New Mexico History Museum

Website of the Palace of the Governors

Website of the Fray Angélico Chávez History Library

The Great Pueblo Revolt at the Library of Congress

Learn more at the website of the New Mexico Office of the State Historian

Jesse L. Nusbaum at nps.gov (opens as a PDF)

Jesse L. Nusbaum at the Museum of New Mexico

Map of Spanish Colonial Finds
Map of Spanish Colonial Finds and the sites mentioned in this article. Click on the map to enlarge and sharpen.

In Brief: What Is beneath the Palace of the Governors? — David H. Snow

Tewa Pottery from Nineteenth-Century Archaeological Sites C. Dean Wilson

Website of the New Mexico Office of Archaeological Studies

Northern Rio Grande Historic Bichrome – Polychrome Ware

Northern Rio Grande Historic Plain Ware

Northern Rio Grande Micaceous Utility Ware

An Era of Change: Santa Fe in the 1800s and 1900sMatthew J. Barbour and Jessica A. Badner

In Brief: The Curious “Coin” of Santa Fe — Lonyta Viklund-Galloway

Article on the find in the Santa Fe New Mexican

Preservation Spotlight: The Missing Dead of Historic Santa Fe: A Preservation Problem 400 Years in the Making — Alysia L. Abbott

Back Sight — William H. Doelle

“Water Pricing in Two Thirsty Cities: In One, Guzzlers Pay More, and Use Less,” Nelson D. Schwartz, New York Times, May 6, 2015

Trucas Molino at the Library of Congress:

“The Truchas Molino is one of the only examples of a Spanish Colonial style grist mill powered by a rodenzo, a horizontal water wheel, that is currently operational in the United States. These molinos (grist mills) are unique because of their horizontal wheels, which turn in a counterclockwise rotation, and operate without any gear mechanism. After serving the Village of Truchas from 1873–1940, the mill was saved and moved in 1968, and restored to working condition in 1991. It was relocated alongside La Cienega Acequia, a community shared irrigation ditch that has been active since ca. 1715. The Truchas Molino survives as a unique example of Spanish technological influence, and is a rare survivor of a once prevalent feature of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century rural northern New Mexico.”

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Water Wheel at Grist Mill
Water Wheel at Grist Mill. The wooden sluiceway depicted in Bill Doelle’s “Back Sight” leads to this mill. Image courtesy of the Library of Congress. Read more here.